Althaea officinalis belongs to the family Malvaceae (lat. Malvaceae), which has 85 genera, distributed mainly in the tropics and subtropics, and relatively few in temperate areas. About 12 species of plants growing in the temperate zone of Europe and Asia belong to the Altea genus, 8 of them are found in the CIS. Althaea officinalis is a perennial, densely pubescent plant due to the presence of stellate branched hairs, it has one or several stems and a strong branched short rhizome with rather thick, long, fleshy roots. Stems mostly upright simple, sometimes branched in the upper part, from 50 to 150 cm high. In folk medicine, water infusion of Althea roots as an auxiliary agent is used for inflammation of the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs with a large separation of mucus: for whooping cough, pneumonia, bronchitis and cough.
Centaurea cyanus belongs to the Asteroid, or Trubtsvetnye (Latin Asteroideae, or Tubiflorae) subfamily of the Compositae family, or Asteraceae (Latin Compositae, or Asteraceae). Centaurea cyanus genus (Latin Centaúrea) – combines perennial, rarely two- and annual plants. Annual plant with arachnoid pubescence and a small straight thin root. Branched stem 20-70 cm tall, and in some cases up to 100 cm. In folk medicine, the beneficial properties of cornflower are used in the treatment of eye diseases (in the form of lotions) and as an antifebrile agent.
Valeriana officinalis Belongs to the valerian family (lat. Valerianaceae). The valerian family includes 13 genera, over 400 species. To the genus Valerian (lat. Valeriana) belongs to about 200 species growing in temperate and cold regions of Eurasia, North and South Africa. Valeriana officinalis is a perennial herb 60–150 cm in height. Already in ancient Greece, the effect of valerian on higher nervous activity was known. During the time of Hippocrates (V-IV centuries BC) the plant was used in the treatment of female diseases. Dioscorides considered valerian a means capable of “controlling” thoughts. Pliny attributed it to the means that stimulates the idea. In the Middle Ages, it was described as a medicine that brings complacency, harmony and calmness.
Barberry shrub oblong to 2.5 m tall, with an egg-shaped crown and shiny gray shoots carrying simple, occasionally triad spines. The leaves are entire, wide oblate, dense, bluish-gray. The flowers are yellow, in drooping multi-flowered racemes. Fruits are oblong elliptic, black, with a bluish bloom. High-resistance and drought-resistant (excellent), pests and diseases are slightly damaged (good). Annually the barberry oblong blooms and bears fruit, gives self-sowing (excellent). Blooms in May, the fruits ripen in September. Light-requiring, can grow on poor dry soils, salt-tolerant.
Crataegus belongs to the Rosaceae family (lat. Rosaceae). In the temperate climate of the northern hemisphere, there are up to 200 species of this plant. Hawthorn is a shrub or small tree up to 4-5 m in height with straight spines. Especially famous for its medicinal properties hawthorn blood-red. It has strong purplish-brown shiny shoots, usually bearing thick, straight, spines up to 2.5-4 cm long in nodes. The healing properties of the plant are widely used in traditional medicine. Infusions of flowers and fruits are taken orally, especially with heart neurosis, hypertension, asphyxiation caused by heart ailments, a rush of blood to the head (“stroke”) and during strong nervous shocks.
Hypericum perforatum – belongs to the family of mammals (Latin Hypericaceae). St. John’s wort is a perennial herbaceous plant with a height of up to 30 – 100 cm. The stem is dihedral naked in the upper part of the opposite branchy. Rhizomes and roots are underdeveloped, poorly branched. The leaves are opposite, sessile, oval or ovoid, entire, with translucent glands in the form of black dots. Hypericum perforatum wort, infused with vegetable oil, treat bruises, wounds, ulcers, boils, burns. Hypericum perforatum wort is also used in the treatment of diseases of the lungs, stomach, intestines and gall bladder, with diarrhea and nervous disorders.
Origanum vulgaris belongs to the family of Yasnotkovyh (lat. Lamaceae). The genus Oregano (lat. Origanum) includes over 20 species of perennial grasses common in Europe, Western and Central Asia. Origanum is a perennial herb 30–90 cm tall. The leaves are petiolate, opposite, oblong-ovate, pointed at the top, finely toothed or almost entire, 2-4 cm long, dark green above, greyish green below. In folk medicine, oregano is used as an expectorant, diaphoretic for colds, inflammatory diseases of the throat, with insufficient formation of gastric juice, as an anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hemostatic agent.
Golden Root or Rhodiola Rosea is a perennial medicinal plant of the Crassulaceae family (Crassulaceae). The grass reaches a height of about 70 cm, usually at Rhodiola several upright, not branched stems (up to 10-15 pieces), a height of about 10-40 cm, less common plants with a single stem. The use of the golden root stimulates the body during physical and mental overloads, accelerates healing processes after operations and diseases. The unique healing properties of the golden root properties are especially useful for people who have lowered vitality.Rhodiola root is used to treat diseases of the digestive tract, pulmonary tuberculosis, skin diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.
Urtica dioica belongs to the nettle family (lat. Urticaceae). The genus nettle has 40-50 species, in the CIS grows about 10 species. Stinging nettle is a perennial herb, up to 170 cm high, with a long, creeping branched rhizome and thin roots in the nodes. Stems erect, tetrahedral, grooved. The leaves are opposite, petiolate, ovoid-lancerous, large-serrated. The stem and leaves are covered with long stinging and short simple hairs. The healing properties of nettle have been known for a long time. Dioscorides recommended it for gastrointestinal disorders, purulent and allergic diseases. In the Middle Ages, it was used in lead poisoning, with kidney stones.
Almond is a shrub or a small tree belonging to the subgenus Almond (Amygdalus) of the Plum genus, subfamily Spiraeoideae, of the Rosaceae family of the Rosales order. Almond – a small drought-resistant tree, whose height reaches 2-5 meters. The branches are smooth, red-brown color, young branches have a green color. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, petiolate, arranged in bunches on the branches, with a pointed tip. Due to its beneficial properties, bitter almonds have long been recognized in traditional medicine and have been successfully used to treat many diseases. The fruits of the plant in crushed form are effective for prolonged cough, asthmatic attacks, pleurisy. The same decoction strengthens the vision, taking an infusion of almond inside.
Plantago major belongs to the family of plantain (lat. Plantaginaceae). The plantain is a perennial herb with a short, vertical rhizome, with numerous fibrous roots. The leaves of the plant are long-petiolate, large, broadly ovate, with 3–9 arcuate veins. Leaves form a rosette. The inflorescence is a long cylindrical spike up to 15-30 cm high. In traditional medicine in many countries, fresh crushed leaves of various plantain species are used for injuries, boils, bruises, burns and as an anti-inflammatory agent for insect bites. For eye inflammation, use an infusion for flushing.
Tanacetum vulgare belongs to the Aster family (lat. Asteraceae). To the genus tansy belongs 50 species of herbaceous plants. Common tansy is a perennial herb, 50-100 cm high. The stem is erect, branched from the middle, grooved, hairless or slightly pubescent. In the people common tansy is called a wild rowan, for the external similarity of inflorescences of a plant with clusters of rowan berries. There are also such names of this plant: guryanka, wormotus, yellow devyatnik, mother liquor, crook, wild tansy.
Sumac is a small tree or shrub belonging to a species of the genus Sumac (lat. Rhus) of the family Sumac or Anacardia (lat. Anacardiaceae). Sumy tannery is a relatively little branchy and small tree or more often a shrub from 1 to 3 meters in height. The bark has an oblong-wrinkled appearance, on the annual shoots smoother and gray-brown, on perennial branches – wrinkled and brown. The leaves were used in folk medicine and folk veterinary medicine in case of poisoning with salts of heavy metals and alkaloids as a wound healing, astringent, antiburner and antiinflammatory agent.
The genus dog rose (synonym rose) belongs to the Rosaceae family (lat. Rosaceae). There are about 300 species of plants of this genus, including the beloved garden rose of all. The species of wild rose are over 60. Rosehip is a shrub that can reach a height of up to 2 meters. Rosehip cinnamon (May) has drooping stems covered with odd-pinnate leaves, which have stipules at the base on both sides. Most often the leaf consists of 5 or 7 ovoid-elliptic leaflets, along the edge of the toothed leaflets, with two stipules. Stems and leaves have hard spines. In folk medicine, used tea from the hips, which is used to promote health, especially when coughing and colds (pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiectasis). Rosehip syrup or mashed potatoes are used with reduced appetite. Fresh fruits are used as anthelmintic. Rose hips are used against stones in the urinary tract, as a mild diuretic for rheumatism and gout.
Salvia officinalis belongs to the family of Yasnotkovyh (Latin Labiateae). Salvia officinalis is a semi-shrub, a perennial herbaceous medicinal plant 20–70 cm high, with an erect branchy whitish fluffy stem, at the base of the stem there are opposite petiolate, woody, oval-ovate, gray-leaved, wrinkled, fluffy-syrup-like-to-the-sweets. The beneficial properties of sage medicinal and its essential oils were known in antiquity. The Egyptians gave the plant to barren women, and also used as protection against the plague. The ancient Greeks believed in the miraculous power of the plant and made medicinal “Greek tea” from its leaves. Information about the healing properties of sage came from Pliny the Elder, Galen, Hippocrates, who recommended it to improve the functioning of the senses and the liver.
Licorice is a perennial herb with a deep, powerful root system. Leaves alternate, complex, pinnate, with ovate-lanceolate leaflets. The flowers are pale purple, moth-like type, are collected in the axillary dense spiciform racemes. Licorice (licorice) fruits – leathery brown beans. Plant height 50–100 cm. Licorice as a medicinal plant has long been known. It is widely used in traditional medicine in various countries. The plant has a good expectorant, enveloping, emollient, wound healing, diuretic and mild laxative effect. It is proved that licorice regulates the water-salt metabolism of the body and has antispasmodic properties. A decoction of licorice roots is taken as an expectorant and emollient when coughing, bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, and as a mild laxative and diuretic.